Caspase-3 activation measurement. Cells were treated for 24 h with different FFA in the presence or absence of 100 ng/ml TNF-α. At the end of incubation, cells were harvested and caspase-3 activity was measured fluorimetrically. Data presented as average +/- s.d. of n = 9 from three independent experiments. *, significantly greater than control; #, significant TNF-α interaction effect (significantly greater than palmitate culture in absence of TNF-α). For both * and #, p < 0.01.