Characterization of each estimated flux in the pykF (-) knockout mutant. (a) Spectrum for the ECF-simulated metabolic flux in central metabolic pathways of the pykF(-) mutant. One hundred forty-six sets of EMCs optimized for wild-type were employed to estimate the flux distribution profiles. The vertical lines indicate the allowable ranges for the estimated flux. Each line has two transverse dashes at the right: The lower one indicates the mean (m) and the upper one is the sum of the mean and the standard deviation (σ). (b) Relative standard deviations for the estimated flux spectrum. The relative standard deviations (σ/m) are plotted with respect to the means (m). (c) Relative model error for flux. The relative model error for each flux is plotted with respect to the experimental flux for the mutant.