Schematic representation of virus replication and antiviral silencing. Schematic representation of plus-strand RNA virus replication (purple box) and the RNA silencing pathway (green box). Viral plus- and minus-strand RNA is replicated by RdRP, including semi conservative synthesis of multiple plus strands from a single minus-strand template. The formed dsRNA dissociates into single-strand RNA. Viral single- and double-stranded RNA can be cleaved by Dicer into siRNA. siRNA associates with RISC and cleaves the target RNA. siRNAs can guide or prime amplification of the response through host encoded RDR, or viral ssRNA is amplified in an unprimed manner. The primary pathway is shown on the left, the secondary on the right.