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Table 2 Modeling of four mechanisms of microRNA action in the non-linear protein translation model

From: Dynamical modeling of microRNA action on the protein translation process

Observable value Initiation(k1) Step after initiation(k2) Ribosome assembly (k3) Elongation (k4)
Wild-type cap, inefficient initiation
Steady-state rate slightly decreases decreases no change decreases after threshold
Relaxation time no change no change no change goes up and down
Wild-type cap, efficient initiation
Steady-state rate no change slightly decreases after strong inhibition no change decreases
Relaxation time no change goes up and down no change no change
A-cap, inefficient initiation
Steady-state rate decreases decreases no change slightly decreases after strong inhibition
Relaxation time no change no change no change goes up and down
A-cap, efficient initiation
Steady-state rate decreases after threshold slightly decreases after strong inhibition no change decreases
Relaxation time goes up and down goes up and down no change increases
  1. MicroRNA action effect is described for the protein synthesis steady rate and the relaxation time (see also Fig. 8). "Efficient initiation" and "inefficient initiation" correspond to two qualitatively different solution types of Nissan and Parker's model (see the beginning of "Effect of microRNA on the translation dynamics" section). The effect of A-cap structure is modeled by making the cap-dependent initiation step very slow (by making the k1 parameter very small). It is assumed that the ribosome assembly step in protein translation, described by the k3 rate constant, is not rate limiting.