Effect of specific growth rate on acetate synthesis and utilization pathways, selected TCA cycle and carbon catabolite repressed gene and protein expression levels in E. coli A-stat experiments. PTA, phosphotransacetylase; ACKA, acetate kinase; ACS, acetyl-CoA synthetase; POXB, pyruvate oxidase; PDHC, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex; TCA, tricarboxylic acid cycle; GS, glyoxylate shunt; Crp, cyclic AMP receptor protein; Cra, catabolite repressor activator; Icd, isocitrate dehydrogenase; SucD, succinyl-CoA synthethase; SdhB, succinate dehydrogenase; μ, specific growth rate (h-1). Thickness of red arrows denotes level of ACS and PTA-ACKA pathway repression (thick line represents stronger repression). Protein data points are average of two independent experiments, error bars are not shown for better visualization. Gene names are italicized. Refer to Additional file 2 for standard deviations and all the data.