Central metabolic state of wild-type and ethanol production strains. Genes associated with each reaction in the central metabolic networks are shown. If isozymes exist, the corresponding genes for each isozyme are listed on separate lines. If an enzyme consists of multiple subunits, the associated genes are listed at the same line. (A) Metabolic flux distribution for wild-type strain as predicted by the integrated metabolic and regulatory model. Genes repressed by transcriptional regulation, as predicted by the integrated model, are highlighted in black. (B) Metabolic flux distribution for the ΔfnrΔpflBΔtdcEΔpgi+edd ethanol production strain as predicted by the integrated metabolic and regulatory model. Genes de-repressed by the deletion of the Fnr transcription factor are highlighted in gray. *The expression of ackA is not activated by Fnr in the mutant strain.