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Table 3 Gene deletion and overexpression strategies for ethanol production in E. coli.

From: OptORF: Optimal metabolic and regulatory perturbations for metabolic engineering of microbial strains

Deleted Genes Overexpressed Genes Growth Rate (hr-1) Ethanol Yield (%)
fnr pflB tdcE pgi   edd 0.225 86.2
fnr pflB tdcE pgi ptsH edd       fbp 0.182 90.4
fnr pflB tdcE tpiA   edd 0.235 90.5
fnr pflB tdcE tpiA gdhA edd 0.214 91.4
arcA pta eutD tpiA ptsH edd 0.192 91.6
  1. In addition to gene deletions, overexpressed genes are identified to further improve ethanol production. The maximum number of overexpressed genes was limited to two for all cases, and strategies including less than four gene deletions are not shown due to the negligible increase in ethanol yields by gene overexpression.