The predicted yeast MAPK pathways induced by pheromones. A. The shorted path from Ste3 to Ste12 which is also the result of the Color Coding method with the path length as 5. B. The pathway predicted by the information flow method with dissipation, saturation and direction. C. The pathway predicted by the integer linear programming model. D. The pathway predicted by the electric current method. Red: the source or the target; green: proteins appeared in the yeast pheromone-induced MAPK pathway from Ste3 to Ste12 in KEGG; Blue: false positive proteins.