Increasing dilution rate dependent E. coli K-12 MG1655 metabolism characterization in one A-stat cultivation. D, dilution rate (h-1); X, biomass concentration (g dry cellular weight (g DCW)/L); μ, specific growth rate (h-1); rCO2, specific CO2 production rate (mmol/g DCW h); OAc-, acetate concentration (mM); Glc, glucose concentration (mM); cAMP, cyclic AMP concentration (μM). Arrow indicates the start of overflow metabolism. Start of vertical axes was chosen for better visualization. Reproduced by permission from Valgepea et al. .