Specific growth rate dependent dynamic carbon wasting profiles in three E. coli K-12 MG1655 A-stat cultivations. μ, specific growth rate (h-1). Error bars represent standard deviation of triplicate A-stat experiments. A. Production of compounds per biomass (mmol/g DCW): CBASP, carbamoyl-aspartate (green triangle); DHO, dihydroorotate (blue diamond); orotate (red square); OAc-, acetate (orange circle). Grey arrow denotes acetate overflow switch with concomitant stop of DHO and CBASP increase whereas black arrow depicts faster acetate accumulation coupled induction of orotate and CBASP excretion. B. Production of compounds per biomass (mmol/g DCW): NAA, acetyl-aspartate (blue diamond); lactate (red square).