Simulated time course and experimental result of VEGF-mediated MLC activation (left) and ERK activation (right). Thrombin and histamine level set at zero values. The shaded area in the left figure indicates the time range in which VEGF-induced vascular leakage reaches its peak in experimental studies (Ref 57). The shaded area in the right figure indicates the time range in which the amount of ERK-1/2 activation reaches maximum value after VEGF administration (Ref 58). The VEGF concentrations were set as 0.02 μM.