Model. Model construction: A) Multiple feedbacks in NF-κ B regulatory network are reduced to the core circuit consisting of positive cytokine feedback, T → N → T, that allows signal amplification and negative feedback, N → R ⊣ N, that captures NF-κ B transient dynamics. B) Mathematical description of the NF-κ B-like circuit. N denotes the fraction of active NF-κ B; T is the fold induction in cytokine concentration and R is a negative regulator of N. C) The transient response of N to the stimuli S, and D) corresponding T profile in single isolated cell. E) The model of spatially coupled NF-κ B-like circuits. The coupling is through the diffusion of cytokines, T, and results in "propagating waves " of T shown in space-time plot in F) and G). In G) we illustrate the 2D variant of the model simulated with the same parameters.