The classical view of energy metabolism within neurons and astrocytes. Blood glucose is transported and utilized by both cells in glycolysis, and the resulting pyruvate is mainly converted to AcetylCoA within the mitochondria, to be broken down in citric acid cycle, where NADH produced is converted to ATP in chemiosmosis. Some of the pyruvate is converted to lactate, however, and released into the extracellular matrix. Glucose or lactate transporters as well as certain glycolytic and other enzymes were modeled to be regulated by hypoxia. Transport across compartments are shown with dashed arrows. (Please note that the figures are simplified due to space constraints and not all reactions are explicitly included; please refer to Additional File 1 for full set of reactions modeled; numbers in red correspond to the reaction numbers in this file). GLUT, Glucose transporter; MCT, lactate transporter; HK, hexose kinase; PFK, phosphofructo kinase; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-P-dehydrogenase; PK, pyruvate kinase; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; AcCoA, Acetyl coenzyme A; a-KG, alpha-ketoglutarate; SucCoA, succinyl coenzyme A; Suc, succinate; Mal, malate; OxAc, oxaloacetate; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; NADH, G6P, glucose-6-phosphate; GAP, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate; BPG, bisphosphoglycerate; PHase, pyrolyl hydroxylase; HIF, hypoxia-inducible factor; Cr, creatine; P-Cr, phospho-creatine.