Types of association modules. From top-left to bottom-right: cis-acting effects with copy number variations of chromosomal segments, trans-acting effects with copy number variations of chromosomal segments, associations with gene mutations, associations with DNA methylations, regulatory effects with microRNAs, regulatory effects with transcription factors. Black solid lines: information flows from central dogma. Green dashed lines: regulatory links from transcription factors or microRNAs to their targets on other chromosomal locations. Red dotted lines: associations between observed aberrations and mRNA/microRNA expressions. Arrows indicate positive associations and bar-ends indicate negative associations.