Examples of real data association. a. Shown are microbe group Bac675 (red square) and Bac609 (blue circle) ARISA abundance time series from the marine microbial community data analysis. Notice that there exists an almost regular yearly pattern where Bac609 leads Bac675 by one month in blooming time. b. Shown are gene 32607 (red square) and 51986 (blue circle) expression level time series from C. elegans gene expression data analysis. Notice that 51986 leads 32607 in expression level change throughout the time course.