Calculation of efficiency measure. A. Illustration of oxygen () and total substrate uptake rates (v
) for exclusive utilization of glucose (▲), oleate (+), acetoacetate (●) and lactate (◼). Calculated distances for each criterion were visualized for acetoacetate, with dotted lines indicating distances to minimal and maximal oxygen uptake rate and straight lines to respective minimal and maximal total substrate uptake rates. Additional markers indicate theoretical values for best (green circle) and worst (red circle) solution. The efficiency index is defined as the relative distance for each solution to the best-case solution:. B. Bar plots for comparison of calculated efficiency indices for simulated substrate compositions to experimental results.