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Table 2 Metabolic and physiological functions tested for the metabolic network

From: CardioNet: A human metabolic network suited for the study of cardiomyocyte metabolism

Classification Metabolic function Cellular function Reference
1. Carbohydrates    
Monosaccharides Glucose and fructose metabolism Energy production [28, 29]
  Glycogen formation short-term energy storage [22]
  Ribose Energy production [30, 31]
   Formation of ribonucleotides  
2. Carboxylic acids Degradation of ketone bodies Energy production during fasting [32, 33]
   and diabetes  
3. Lipids    
Cholesterol De novo synthesis (cytosol, peroxisome) Membrane synthesis [34, 35]
Fatty acids Formation of (semi)-essential fatty acids Membrane synthesis [36, 37]
  β-oxidation of (non)-essential fatty acids Energy production [3840]
Triacylglycerides De novo synthesis/ degradation of Mono-, Membrane synthesis [41, 42]
  Di- and Triacylglycerides   
Phospholipids De novo synthesis/ degradation of: Membrane formation [15, 16, 41, 4345]
Sphingolipids Ceramides Membrane formation, apoptosis [46]
4. Proteins    
Amino acids Formation of (non)-essential amino acids Precursors of cellular proteins, nucleic acids, [47, 48]
   glutathione and thioredoxin  
  Degradation of (non)-essential amino acids Amino acid homoeostasis, [49]
   anaplerotic reactions of TCA cycle  
  Glutamine formation Ammonia detoxification, Protein [50]
   de novo synthesis  
  De novo synthesis of L-Carnitine Transport of fatty acids from cytosol into [51, 52]
   mitochondria during β-oxidation  
Tripeptide De novo synthesis of Glutathione Prevention of cellular damage due to ROS [53]
Polyamines Formation/ degradation of Prutescine and Spermidine Cell growth and division [54, 55]
Proteins De novo synthesis of:   
  Myosin, Titin, α-Sarcoglycan, Tropomyosin, Troponin T Contractile apparatus, enabling muscular contraction [56, 57]
  De novo synthesis of Thioredoxin Prevention of cellular damage due to ROS [47, 48]
5. Nucleic acids    
Nucleobases De novo synthesis/ degradation of purine Precursors of nucleosides, deoxy-ribonulceotides [58, 59]
  and pyrimidine nucleotides and ribonucleotides  
  Salvage of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides Maintaining energy state [60]
  De novo synthesis/ rephosphorylation of:   
  nucleosides (ATP, CTP, GTP, TTP, UTP) Energy production for muscular contraction [59, 6163]
  NADH, NADPH Energy production and providing redox-state [64, 65]