Metabolic network pathway activity in E. coli. (A-C). Differential pathway activity between the wild-type E. coli grown anaerobically on glucose minimal media and the mutant E. coli Δedd Δgnd grown anaerobically on maltohexoase, fumarate, D-glucosamine, phosphate, and sulfate minimal media (Design 1 in Table1). (A) The complete metabolic network map, and close-ups (regions framed by red boxes) of (B) the citric acid cycle and (C) the lipid metabolism. Metabolic pathway reactions are color-coded according to the relative flux differences (color legend for flux values in (C) applies to (A-C)) between the engineering designs. Similar metabolic network maps for all organisms and Pareto optimal designs can be viewed using the Multi-Goal Metabolic Engineering Website (Methods).