FBAwMC growth simulations, compared with experimental data (discs). The best fitting simulation is indicated with a solid line, the mean and standard deviations with dashed lines. Experimental data are indicated with black dots. We scaled the growth rate of the simulations and the experimental observations to the maximal growth rate. Mean and standard deviations are calculated from all simulations that switch to low-yield metabolism at high growth rates (yield < 0.3 gr dry weight/gr glucose). A. L. lactis, data from Thomas et al. ; B. S. cerevisiae, data from Hoek et al. ; C. E. coli, data from Varma and Palsson .