Flux decrease through the high-yield pathway, relative to the maximum flux through the high-yield pathway. This is a measure of the decrease in flux through the high-yield pathway during the metabolic switch. As in Figure 2, we only report simulations that resulted in low-yield metabolism, with yield < 0.3 gr dry weight/gr glucose. Dashed lines indicate experimental values. A. L. lactis, reported is decrease in formate production rate, data from Thomas et al. ; B. S. cerevisiae, reported is decrease in oxygen uptake rate, data from Hoek et al. ; C. E. coli, reported is decrease in oxygen uptake rate, data from Varma and Palsson .