Performance comparison without parameter sensitivities. Performance comparison for integration of ODE-based systems biology models without parameter sensitivities. (A) Computation times, (B) number of integration steps, (C) number of r.h.s. evaluations f(x), and (D) number of evaluations of the Jacobian J
(x)as a function of the relative numerical tolerance. Symbols specify the integrators ode15s (open red squares), radau5 (open green diamonds), odeSD (open black circles), and odeSD
(filled black circles), respectively. Performance metrics are normalized to the corresponding measures for cvode and averaged (mean ±std.) over all models, which were integrated over the time spans given in Table 2; the dashed line indicates performance equal to cvode. (E) Computation times and (F) number of integration steps as a function of numerical precision (see main text for definition) in analogy to (A) and (B).