Multiple combinations of D , q and λ result in the same extent of spatial expansion. A circular barrier assay initialised with 20,000 cells was simulated using the mathematical model. The initial distribution of 20,000 simulated cells at t=0 hours is shown in (A). The scale bar corresponds to 1.5 mm. Simulation snapshots shown in (B–D) illustrate three different combinations of the cell motility rate, cell–to–cell adhesion strength and cell proliferation rate used to replicate the experiments over t=48 hours. All three simulations result in a similar extent of spatial expansion from R=3.25 mm at t=0 hours to R=3.45 mm at t=48 hours. Simulations were performed with (B) moderate motility, low cell–to–cell adhesion strength and zero proliferation; D=405μ m2hour−1, q=0.1, λ=0hour−1, (C) high motility, high cell–to–cell adhesion strength and zero proliferation; D=810μ m2hour−1, q=0.8, λ=0hour−1, and (D) low motility, zero cell–to–cell adhesion and moderate proliferation; D=162μ m2hour−1, q=0, λ=0.035hour−1.