Effects of palmitate on CREB1 phosphorylation. Western blotting analysis. HepG2 cells were treated with BSA (as a negative control) and 700 μM Palmitate (PA). After 3, 6, 24 hrs, the cell extracts were collected and subjected to immunoblot analysis for total CREB1 and p-CREB1. Actin served as a loading control. The level of p-CREB1 was quantified by normalizing to the levels of total CREB and expressed as the average of three samples ± SD from three independent experiments: *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 vs. the control at each time point.