Effect of dS values on convergences of parameters and objective values in the BDC group. Distributions of parameters to estimate and objective values at the final iterations in BDC group with corresponding dS values are displayed for the initial (blue) and estimated (green) ranges. Overlapped areas are represented in orange. A number of iterations and a dS value are displayed at the lefthand side of each figure. Parameters got diverged after 2 iterations for dS of 0 to 0.2, or after 3 iterations for dS of 0.3. Normalized values with the initial ranges in log-scale are displayed for the parameters to estimate, and normalized values with the observed objective values in log-scale are displayed for the simulated objective valued. BDC, bile-duct cancer patients.