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Table 1 Carbon sources for the central metabolism of the CHO-K1 cell line in batch culture during the exponential growth phase

From: Non-stationary 13C metabolic flux analysis of Chinese hamster ovary cells in batch culture using extracellular labeling highlights metabolic reversibility and compartmentation

Metabolite Target intracellular metabolite Uptake flux [mmol/(L cell × h)] Uptake flux [Cmmol/(L cell × h)] Percentage of the total carbon-flux
Glucose Pyruvate 371.0 2226.2 64.9
Glutamine AKG 66.4 331.9 9.7
AA1* AcoA 92.6 185.2 5.4
AA2* Malate 49.6 198.4 5.8
AA3* AKG 11.6 58.2 1.7
ASP/ASN OAA 68.1 272.3 7.9
Serine Pyruvate, glycine 48.3 146.4 4.3
TOTAL - - 3428.53 100
  1. The contribution of AA1, AA2 and AA3 amino acid groups considers only catabolism. Abbreviations: AA1: amino acids catabolized to AcoA (isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine); AA2: amino acids catabolized to four-carbon dicarboxylic acids (isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tyrosine, valine); AA3: amino acids catabolized to glutamate (arginine, histidine, proline); AcoA: acetyl coenzyme A; AKG: alpha-ketoglutarate; ASN: asparagine; ASP: aspartate; OAA: oxaloacetate.
  2. *Excluding requirements for protein synthesis.