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Fig. 1 | BMC Systems Biology

Fig. 1

From: Stochastic modeling suggests that noise reduces differentiation efficiency by inducing a heterogeneous drug response in glioma differentiation therapy

Fig. 1

Signaling network of drug-induced glioma differentiation. Signaling pathways involved in the regulation of glioma differentiation during glioma differentiation. Elevation of cAMP level by cholera toxin (CT), can induce glioma cell differentiation, which is mediated by CREB phosphorylation at Ser-133 in a PKA dependent manner [2]. cAMP/PKA signaling can also inhibit the PI3K/AKT pathway, leading to activation of the downstream molecule GSK-3β and subsequent degradation of cyclin D1 [3]. Additionally, the IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 pathway, which is activated by increased cAMP levels, is also involved in glioma cell differentiation [4]. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is used as a reliable marker for evaluating the differentiation of glioma cells

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