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Table 5 Significant (p < 0.01) inhibitors, their potential target kinases and phosphatases and their effects on VSMC proliferation

From: Gene expression profiles and signaling mechanisms in α2B-adrenoceptor-evoked proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

Inhibitor Inhibition of proliferation
[% of control]
Potential target kinases and phosphatases Effect of target kinase/phosphatase on VSMC proliferation Reference
Fenvalerate 32 calcineurin [61, 173,174,175]
5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl benzimidazole 31 CK2 [176, 192, 303,304,305]
Cdk9 [306, 307]
PP2 31 Src family kinases [177,178,179,180,181,182, 308]
PP1 18
SP600125 30 JNKs [183, 184]
SB-202190 30 p38 MAPKs [185,186,187]
Olomoucine 29 Cdk1, Cdk2 [85, 188,189,190,191]
Benzylphosphonic acid 27 tyrosine phosphatases ↑/↓ [309,310,311]
L-p-bromotetramisole 25 alkaline phosphatase n.d. [312, 313]
tyrosine phosphatases ↑/↓ [309,310,311]
LFM-A13 24 BTK, Plk, Jak2 [314,315,316,317]
Daidzein 24 arrests cell cycle at G1 [318,319,320]
LY294002 23 PI3-kinases [173, 180, 192,193,194,195]
Tyrphostin AG 1478 21 EGFR [179, 196,197,198,199]
2-Aminopurine 17 PKR [321, 322]
GW5074 16 Raf-1 [37, 177, 200]
  1. CK2 = protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase), Cdks 1,2 and 9 = cyclin-dependent kinases 1,2 and 9, Src family kinases = Src, Fyn, Hck and Lck, JNKs = c-Jun N-terminal kinases, p38 MAPKs = p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, BTK = Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, Plk = Polo-like kinase, Jak2 = Janus kinase 2, PI3 kinase = phosphoinositide 3-kinase, EGFR = epidermal growth factor receptor, PKR = ds-RNA-activated protein kinase, Raf-1 = RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase. In cases when little data are available in VSMCs, the table was augmented with information of kinase/phosphatase effects on cell proliferation in other cell types