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Table 2 Ratio of female values to male values for various enzyme expressions and concentrations in one-carbon metabolism

From: Sex differences in hepatic one-carbon metabolism

 

Female/male

Animal

Reference

PEMT

2-2.3

Mouse, human hepatocytes

[68]

BHMT

0.54-0.6

Mice

[69]

MTHFR

0.37-0.93

Mice

[4]

MS

1.32-1.38

Mice

[4]

SHMT

1.89-2.44

Mice

[4]

Choline

1.44-2.75

Rats

[5]

Betaine

1.29-2.89

Rats and mice

[4, 5]

SphMy

1.18-1.3

Mice

[4]

SAM

0.82-1

Human, whole blood

[6]

Hcy

0.6-0.89

Humans

*, [4, 7073]

  1. The enzymes PEMT, BHMT, MTHFR, MS, and SHMT are up- or down-regulated in females. The concentrations of choline, betaine, sphingomyelin, SAM, and Hcy are higher or lower in females as indicated. The ranges for the ratios come from the cited literature. * indicates data from the NHANES 2005-2006 survey: wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/