Kinetic scheme of the AMPAR. Rate constants used were determined by Jonas et al.  and are found in Table 5. Naming convention of the states match those jound in Jonas et al. Two glutamate molecules need to be bound for the channel to switch to the open state (C2 to O). Desensitization can occur from the single-bound, closed-channel; double-bound, closed-channel; or double-bound, open channel state (C3, C4, C5).