EMU basis vectors, coefficients, and sensitivities. Representative data for the EMU decomposition of the mammalian network model for lactate measurement. (A) Major EMU basis vectors from each of four metabolic pathways. (B) Contribution coefficients corresponding to EMU basis vectors for wild-type (WT) and PC-expressing (PYC) HEK-293 cells. (C) Sensitivities of coefficients to the free fluxes, oxPPP and PC (values are × 102). Note: “u” refers to non-tracer (i.e. unlabeled) substrate atoms.