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Table 2 Differential urinary metabolites between HUPM and LUPM patients

From: Systematic variations associated with renal disease uncovered by parallel metabolomics of urine and serum

No. Compounds VIP a p-Value b FDR c FC d Biochemical pathway
1 cis-Aconitic acid 1.73 9.87E-03 2.42E-02 -0.74 TCA cycle
2 Lactose 1.55 2.23E-02 3.54E-02 -0.45 Galactose metabolism
3 Erythritol 1.72 9.99E-03 2.25E-02 0.41 Polyol metabolism
4 Xylitol 1.39 4.27E-02 4.80E-02 0.30 Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
5 Galactitol 1.38 4.86E-02 4.86E-02 0.62 Galactose metabolism
6 Inositol 1.73 9.63E-03 2.60E-02 1.00 Galactose metabolism
7 Glyceric acid 1.52 2.54E-02 3.43E-02 0.69 Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
8 2,4-Dihydroxybutyric acid 1.74 9.20E-03 2.76E-02 0.44 Fatty acid metabolism
9 Threonic acid 2.17 7.40E-04 6.66E-03 0.35 Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism
10 2-Deoxyribonic acid 1.58 1.97E-02 3.32E-02 0.39  
11 2-Ketogluconic acid 1.71 1.07E-02 2.22E-02 0.41  
12 Glutaric acid 1.66 1.37E-02 2.47E-02 0.48 Fatty acid metabolism, Lysine degradation
13 3-Methylglutaric acid 1.74 9.12E-03 3.08E-02 0.48 Leucine metabolism
14 Adipic acid 2.17 6.97E-04 9.41E-03 0.58 Fatty acid metabolism
15 2-Hydroxyglutaric acid 1.94 3.13E-03 1.41E-02 0.40 Fatty acid metabolism
16 Suberic acid 1.70 1.30E-02 2.51E-02 0.54 Fatty acid metabolism
17 3-Hydroxysebacic acid 1.56 2.36E-02 3.54E-02 0.80 Fatty acid metabolism
18 Mandelic acid 1.44 3.47E-02 4.46E-02 0.50 Aminobenzoate degradation
19 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid 1.41 3.86E-02 4.53E-02 0.37 Phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism
20 Vanillic acid 1.36 4.70E-02 4.88E-02 0.25 Gut microflora metabolism
21 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid 1.42 3.83E-02 4.70E-02 0.69 phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
22 4-Hydroxyphenyllactic acid 1.52 2.53E-02 3.60E-02 0.49 Phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism
23 Vanillactic acid 2.04 1.66E-03 1.12E-02 1.15 Gut microflora metabolism
24 Cytosine 1.91 3.71E-03 1.43E-02 0.81 Pyrimidine metabolism
25 Quinolinic acid 2.31 2.53E-04 6.83E-03 0.61 Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
26 Cholesterol 1.97 2.70E-03 1.46E-02 1.51 Steroid biosynthesis
  1. a Variable importance in the projection (VIP) was obtained from PLS-DA model with value higher than 1.0;
  2. b The p-value calculated from two-tailed Student's t test;
  3. c FDR adjusted p value from two-tailed Student's t test;
  4. d Fold change was calculated as binary logarithm of average mass response (normalized peak area) ratio between HUPM and LUPM patients, where the positive value means that the average mass response of the metabolite in the HUPM group is larger than that in the LUPM group.