Immunohistochemistry and pathway analysis of AKI modulated pathways along the RAAS/glutamatergic axes. (A) Molecules of interest found and/or predicted to be differentially expressed based on the proteomics data and subsequent pathway analysis, were verified by immunohistochemistry of kidney tissue. (B) These proteins were delineated into specific signalling cascade involving the angiotensin to p38kinase downstream signalling and NMDA-R1 (Grin1) pathway. All six molecules tested (highlighted in red) showed an up-regulation as measured by mass spectrometry experimentation in AKI samples and potentially validates the proposed signalling cascade. Original magnification of immunohistochemical microscopy is ×20 (MSK and hRas control ×40 in order to observe the intense nuclear staining of kidney epithelial cells), black bars in the panels are 10 or 20 micron as indicated.