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Figure 4 | BMC Systems Biology

Figure 4

From: (Im)Perfect robustness and adaptation of metabolic networks subject to metabolic and gene-expression regulation: marrying control engineering with metabolic control analysis

Figure 4

Illustration of hierarchical control. The lower part represents a metabolic supply–demand system, in which the supply is catalyzed by enzyme Es (or enzymes stemming from an operon). The upper part describes the synthesis of enzyme Es in process a and its degradation in process b. Full arrows represent chemical conversions. Dashed arrows represent allosteric influences or catalysis. ‘s’ and ‘d’ stand for ‘supply’ and ‘demand’, respectively.

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