Schematic overview of the interspecies protein-protein interaction network construction framework. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) data from the BioGRID database, ortholog information from CGD, ZFIN, InParanoid, and simultaneous time-course microarray data for both C. albicans and zebrafish during C. albicans-zebrafish interactions were used for interspecies PPI network construction. On the basis of the PPI data for S. cerevisiae and H. sapiens and the ortholog information among these related species, putative interspecies and intracellular PPIs were inferred, which constitute the candidate interspecies network. Then, using multivariate dynamic modeling of regulatory responses and simultaneously quantified microarray data, the regulatory abilities were identified, and the significant interactions determined. In this manner, the candidate interspecies network was pruned to construct the refined host-pathogen interspecies PPI network. In the candidate interspecies network and the refined host-pathogen interspecies PPI network, yellow and pink nodes indicate C. albicans and zebrafish proteins, where blue, green, and grey edges denote C. albicans intracellular interactions, zebrafish intracellular interactions, and interspecies interactions, respectively.