Normalized fitted parameters and target values over iterations. Processes of parameter estimations for (a-b) OC and (c-d) BDC groups are described for the initial (blue) and estimated (green) ranges with dS of 0.5. Overlapped areas are represented in orange. Convergence of (a,c) parameters and (b,d) objective values can be observed. Normalized values with the initial ranges in log-scale were displayed for the parameters to estimate (a,c), and normalized values with the observed objective values in log-scale were displayed for the simulated objective valued (b,d).Corresponding parameter ranges after nine iteractions were described in the Additional File 2. BDC, bile-duct cancer patients; OC, other cancer patients.