The effects of constraining the amount of membrane surface area that may be occupied by protein. Shown here is a scatterplot comparing the effects of controlled protein occupancy in the membranes. (A) The effects of constraining the protein surface area in the inner and outer membranes. The apex of growth rate occurs at 0.42 fractional area for protein occupancy for the inner membrane and 0.25 for the outer membrane. The growth rate decreases more rapidly if membranes protein were under-produced verses over-produced. (B) Acetate secretion, glucose uptake, and oxygen uptake fluxes when constraining inner membrane protein surface area. The gray solid bar represents the RNA-seq derived in vivo surface area (+/− one standard deviation), and the dashed line represents the optimal inner membrane surface area occupancy. (C) Mass of the electron transport system complexes and glucose transporters when constraining inner membrane protein surface area.