Performance comparison with parameter sensitivities. Performance comparison with parameter sensitivities. (A) Computation times for the individual models listed in Table 2 with relative tolerance of 10−6using odeSD (white bars), odeSD
(black), ode15s (red), radau5 (green), and cvodes (blue). Due to the explosion in compute time, the three largest steady-state models were not evaluated with ode15s and radau5. (B) CPU times with sensitivity calculation as in (A) relative to CPU times without sensitivity calculation. (C) Average, normalized (see below) CPU times with sensitivities as a function of the relative numerical tolerance for odeSD (open circles) and odeSD
(filled circles) relative to cvodes. (D) Relative numbers of integration steps (open black circles), of function evaluations f(x)(filled black circles), and of evaluations of the Jacobians J·(·)(open red squares) for odeSD
compared to cvodes, respectively. In all cases, model and sensitivity equations were integrated for the time spans shown in Table 2. Performance metrics in (C, D) are normalized to the corresponding measures for cvodes and averaged (mean ±std.); the dashed line indicates performance equal to cvodes.